During the Second Punic War, Fabius Cunctator was elected dictator twice, in both 221 and 217 BC. His policy was to not oppose Hannibal's army directly, but to instead harass it. Thus, he was given the cognomen of "Cunctantor", or "The Delayer". When his policies were not adhered to by the Romans, they suffered grave defeats, such as at the Battles of Cannae and Lake Trasimene. He was admired by later Romans for his foresight and was called "the shield of Rome".